Cancer can occur any part of the body like, breast, liver, stomach, lung cervix etc. among them breast cancer is great cancer throughout the world. Breast cancer can occur both man and women. But women have great risk to occur breast cancer. Only 1 percent of the men have chance to occur breast cancer.
Causes of breast cancer
Exact cause of breast cancer is not yet clearly known. But some risk factors have been identified for the causation of breast cancer in women. These risk factors of breast cancer are discussed below:
Over 60 year old women have great chance to occur breast cancer. Although period off women have great chance to occur breast cancer. So age is the major causes of breast cancer.
If any relative or person of family have breast cancer, the future generation of that family has chance to occur breast cancer.
It is one of the major causes of breast cancer. Which women drink alcohol in large amount; she has great chance to occur breast cancer.
Certain gene changes increase the risk of breast cancer. If certain gene becomes change due to ray or mutation on this gene, then breast cancer can occur.
Women who have dense or fatty breast, those women have great chance to occur breast cancer.
Reproductive or menstrual history
Women who onset menses before age of twelve, she has great chance to occur breast cancer. Also women who have no child or who have never breast, she have a chance to occur it.
It is another cause of breast cancer. Overweight and post-menopausal obese women have a great risk of developing breast cancer. Higher level of estrogen in obese women, which may be the great risk of brest cancer.
Having certain types of breast lumps
It is another cause of breast cancer. Women who have several types of non-cancerous breast lumps they are greater risk of breast cancer. Later breast lumps are converting into cancer and develop into breast.
Certain medical treatment that use radiation like X-ray and CT scans, that slightly increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
Clinical sigh and symptoms of breast cancer
The major sign and symptoms of breast cancer are given below:
- Changes the shape and size of breast.
- Reddish color of the breast skin.
- Retraction of breast nipple.
- Discharge from nipple.
- Mass or lymph within the breast.
- New pain in one spots that does not go away.
- Rash on the nipple.
- A marble-like hardened area under the skin.
- Unexplained swelling of the breast.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Breast cancer is diagnosed by following way:
It is done by taking breast tissue from mass area then it observed under microscope.
Clinical breast exam
A clinical breast exam is one kinds of breast exam that is performed by a health expert professional. This is one kinds of basic part of check up that starting form age 20.
A mammogram is one kinds of X-ray taken to observe for abnormal growth or possibilities of breast tissues. It is a key tool for detection breast cancer.
It is another way to diagnosis breast cancer. Sometime doctor use ultrasound images to check the location of breast lump is a cyst or a mass.
It is also major way to identify breast cancer. MRI means magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of breast cancer
Treatment of breast cancer is given below:
In early stage of breast cancer, surgery is the successful mood of treatment. In this treatment the mass of breast tissue is surgically removed.
This is another way to treatment of breast cancer. In this treatment high radiation energy is used to destroy the cancerous cell of breast.
This treatment is used in the last stage of breast cancer. By using chemical drugs the cancer cells are destroyed.
Fourth type of treatment in breast cancer is hormonal therapy. This treatment is applied in early stage of breast cancer.
Breast cancer stages
Breast cancer stage means present condition or stages of breast cancer. It is very much needed to determine breast cancer stages for diagnosis of breast cancer or treatment of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is a cancer that usually forms in the cell of breast. Now a day breast cancer is common cancer around the world after skin cancer. Normally breast cancer occurs in women but it cans also occurring both men and women. But women’s are great risk for breast cancer.
Public support and research funding can make awareness about breast cancer and it also helps for treatment and diagnosis of breast cancer. Now a day’s breast cancer survival has increase and also the number of deaths has been decrease.
How the breast cancer stages determined?
Breast cancer stages can be determined by observing following factors:
- By observing the size of tumor within the breast.
- The number of lymph nodes that are affected.
- The nearest lymph nodes that are found under the arm.
Stages of breast cancer
Breast cancer stages are divided into four parts those are:
- Stage 0
- Stage I
- Stage II
- Stage III
- Stage IV
- TNM staging system.
Stage 0 denotes to describe non-invasive barest cancer, like ductal carcinoma in situ. No evidence of cancer call is found in stage 0. Non-cancerous abnormal cells are breaking out from the part of the breast in which they are stayed in this stage.
Stage I or first breast cancer stages
Stage I denotes invasive breast cancer that means cancer cells are breaking trough or also invading normal surrounding tissue of breast. Stage I is divided into two subclasses like IA and IB.
Stage IA denotes invasive breast cancer in which:
- Inside breast tumor measure up to two centimeters.
- Outside the breast cancer does not spread, and no lymph nodes are involved.
Stage IB the invasive breast cancer in which:
- There are no tumors into the breast, instead of, small group of cancer cells are present those ate not lager than 2 millimeter that found in the lymph node.
- Or there is a tumor into the breast that is no longer than two centimeter, and there are a small group of cancers cells are present that are larger than .2 millimeter but smaller than two millimeters in the lymph nodes.
Stage II or second breast cancer stage
Stage II also divided into two subcategories known as IIA and IIB.
Stage IIA denotes invasive breast cancer in which:
- no tumor can be found into the breast but cancer that are larger than 2 millimeters is found into one to three axillary lymph nodes, the lymph node that situated under the arm or the lymph node that are situated near the breast bone.
- Or identify a tumor in the breast that are two centimeters or small that already spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
- Or identify a tumor into breast that is larger than two centimeters but not larger than five centimeters but still not spread into the axillary lymph nodes.
Stage IIB denotes invasive breast cancer in which:
- A tumor is found into breast that is larger than two centimeters but that is not larger than five centimeters, smaller group of breast cancer cell are present than are larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than two millimeters, that are found in the lymph nodes.
- Or the tumor that are found in breast that are larger than two centimeters but no larger than five centimeters. Cancer has spread to one to three axillary lymph nodes or lymph node that are near the breast bone.
- Or the tumor that are larger than five centimeter but still not spread into the axillary lymph nodes.
Stage III is again divided into two subcategories known as IIIA, IIIB and IIIC.
Stage IIIA means invasive breast cancer in which either:
- In this stage no tumor can be found into the breast or tumor may be any size. Cancer that is found in four to nine axillary lymph nodes or the lymph node those are near the breastbone.
- Or the tumor can be larger than five centimeters, a small group of breast cancer cells are found that are larger than 0.2 millimeter but not larger than two millimeters that found in the lymph nodes.
- Or the tumor that is larger than five centimeters. Cancer that already speeds to one to three axillary lymph nodes or the lymph nodes that are situated near the breastbone.
Stage IIIB denotes invasive breast cancer in which:
- The tumor that present may be any size that already spread into the chest wall or skin of the breast and causing the swelling.
- This tumor may be spread up to nine axiliary lymph node.
- Tumor may be spread near the breastbone.
Stage IIIC denotes invasive breast cancer in which:
- May be no sigh of cancer in the breast or if there is present a tumor it may be any size and it may be spread to the chest wall or can be spread into the breast skin.
- The cancer that spread to ten or more axillary lymph nodes.
- The cancer can spread to the lymph node below or above the collarbone.
- Or the cancer can spread to axillary lymph nodes or near the breastbone.
Stage five describes invasive breast cancer that has spread wide range of breast and nearly lymph node to the other organ in the body. In this stage this cancer also spread to skin, liver, lung, distant lymph nodes or brain. It is called metastatic cancer.
TNM staging system
TNM means tumor, node, and metastasis. It is another staging system that is use to provide more details about cancer behave.
TNM system is based on three characteristics:
- Size here T means size of tumor.
- Insolvent of lymph node here N for lymph node.
- Whether the cancer has metastasized. Here M for metastasis.