Chronic liver disease that normally causes scarring of the liver and liver dysfunction and causes many complications such as accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, bleeding disorders, increased pressure in the blood vessels and change in the level of consciousness. The major causes of choric liver disease are long term alcohol abuse and hepatitis C. In US hepatitis C is the most common reason for the liver transplantation. Many other causes including autoimmune inflammation, hepatitis B, drainage system disorders of the liver, Wilson’s disease, metabolic disorders and some medication also causes Chronic liver disease.
What is chronic liver disease?
Liver diseases are usually two types such as acute liver disease and chronic liver disease. Acute liver disease is occurred rapidly and causes liver failure or infection in short time. On the other hand chronic liver disease is happened in long span of time. The term chronic liver disease may apply to many disorder or disease which causes the infection of liver or causes the liver to function improperly. Chronic liver disease can be diagnosed by abnormal result of liver function.
End stage liver disease
In United States, the end stage liver disease is the 12th leading or principle causes of death and the 7th leading or principle causes of death in the people between the ages of twenty five to sixty four tears. Complication of end stage liver disease such as variceal hemorrhage, renal impairment, scites and hepatic encephalopathy primarily account for these deaths. The patient with end stage liver disease requires increasingly complex clinical support and manifest spectrum of symptoms and complication that have important impact on both quality and survival of life.
Because of the possibility or opportunity of liver transplant, the patient with end stage liver disease are more likely to receive hostile care despite constant declining poor fitness. In current practice, planning and referrals to hospice care are not done until the hope or expect of recovery is diminished.
End stage liver failure
Cirrhosis is the last and final common end point in patient with the chronic progressive liver disease or infection from a variety of etiologies. The patient who have some abnormalities of excretory function and liver synthetic and person who develop variceal hemorrhage, renal impairment, hepatic encephalopathy and ascites are considered to have end stage liver failure or end stage liver disease. Liver transplantation is one of the major treatment options for end stage liver disease. Patient with the end stage liver disease are generally managed in the community and also face a variety of sign and symptoms and also disease related complication that affect survival and also health related quality of life.
Risk factors of chronic liver disease
The major risk factors of chronic liver disease including:
Some liver disease those are potentially preventable and also associated with your lifestyle choices. Some alcohol related liver disease which occurs due to excessive consumption of alcohol causes chronic liver disease.
Hepatitis B and C
Normally hepatitis B and hepatitis C are viral infections that are often spread through exchange of bodily fluid like unprotected sexual intercourse, using non-sterilized equipment, and also sharing the unsterilized drug injecting equipment.
Heredity liver disease
Usually the Heredity liver disease can pass genetically from the generation to next generation. For example Wilson’s disease that occur due to copper metabolism abnormalities and the hemochromatosis that occur due to iron overload.
It is one of the major causes of acute liver disease. It is very important to review the dosing guidelines to avoid side effect of any disease.
Some chemical exposure also may damage the liver cell and resulting in liver inflammation, hepatitis, accumulation of triglycerides and the reducing bile flow through the liver. Other chemical such as vinyl chloride, anabolic steroids, and carbon tetrachloride also causes chronic liver disease.
Types of chronic liver disease
Various types of chronic liver disease including:
- Cirrhosis of the Liver.
- Alcoholic liver disease.
- Chronic Hepatitis C.
- Chronic Hepatitis B.
- Autoimmune Hepatitis.
- Liver failure.
- Portal hypertension.
- Wilson’s disease.
- Gaucher Disease.
- Liver cancer.
- Primary biliary cirrhosis.
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis.
- Zellweger Syndrome.
What causes chronic liver disease?
Normally the long time alcoholism is one of the primary causes of Chronic liver disease in united state. Usually men and women respond in different way to alcohol. Although men can safely consume three to four drink per day, while one or two drink can causes inflamed liver in women. Viral infection Hepatitis B and hepatitis C also causes chronic liver disease. Major causes of chronic liver disease including:
- Hepatitis and other viruses.
- Use of certain drugs.
- Chemical exposure.
- Bile duct obstruction.
- Autoimmune diseases.
- Obstruction of outflow of blood from the liver.
- Heart and blood vessel disturbances.
- Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.
- High blood galactose levels.
- High blood tyrosine levels at birth.
- Glycogen storage disease.
- Cystic fibrosis.
- Hereditary accumulation of too much copper.
Symptoms of chronic liver disease
The symptoms of chronic liver disease is vary or depending on the severity of the condition. Mild liver disease may not exhibit any symptoms. The follow are the most common symptoms of chronic liver disease.
- Abnormal nerve function.
- Breast enlargement in men.
- Vomiting blood.
- Curling of fingers.
- Hair loss.
- Jaundice – yellowing of the skin and eyes.
- Kidney failure.
- Liver encephalopathy.
- Muscle loss.
- Poor appetite.
- Portal hypertension.
- Redness of palms.
- Salivary gland enlargement in cheeks.
- Shrinking of testes.
- Spider-like veins in the skin.
- Weight loss.
Diagnosis of chronic liver disease
Different diagnostic tools for chronic liver disease are including:
This technique is also called sonography. It is one of the major techniques to diagnose chronic liver disease. Normally a diagnostic imaging technique that uses a high frequency sound wave and also a computer for create a image of tissue, blood vessel and organs. To use this technique also view the internal organs of the abdomen like liver, kidney and spleen.
This technique also known as Computed tomography scan. By using this technique, normally a diagnostic imaging process are use a combination of X-rays and also using computer technique to produce cross-sectional images in both vertically and horizontally of the body. Normally a CT scan are shows the detailed view and image of any part of the body such as muscle, fat, bone and organ. We can find more details image of internal organ then general X-ray.
It is another major medical technique to diagnose chronic liver disease. In this process a small tissue sample are removed from the liver by using a needle during surgery to check any liver inflammation. Then it is examine under microscope to find out any liver disease.
Liver function test
A series of blood test are performed to determine any liver disease or liver infection. This test is also use to check liver performance. It is very important to diagnose chronic liver disease.
Treatment of chronic liver disease
Chronic liver disease treatment including:
Normally, antibiotics, diuretics and iron supplement may be use for anemia, ammonia accumulation and fluid retention. Sometime Vasoconstrictors are also needed to stop the internal bleeding. On the other hand antiemetic may be prescribed to patient to control nausea. Normally laxative helps the body absorb toxin and also accelerate their remove from the digestive tract. To control the cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension the beta blocker are prescribed. Because the inflamed liver can no longer efficient to neutralize harmful substances, so medication must take to control acute liver disease. Interferon medicines are prescribed to prevent hepatitis B and C.
When medication cannot able to control the chronic liver disease, then surgery are prescribed by the doctor to control liver disease. It is the last stage treatment of chronic liver disease. Surgeries are required to repair disease related throat damage. Sometimes it is necessary to remove the inflamed part or the spleen to control chronic liver disease. Sometime liver transplant also can benefit the patient as a treatment of chronic liver disease.
Latest treatment of chronic liver disease
The following are some of the latest treatment of the chronic liver disease including:
- Liver transplantation.
- Antiviral therapy.
- Interferon alpha.
How to prevented chronic liver disease
Major preventive measures include:
- Obtaining counseling or the other treatment for alcoholism.
- Getting immunizations to against hepatitis when person is in a high-risk group.
- Receiving appropriate medical and treatment when diagnosed with hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
- Having blood drawn at the regular intervals to rid the body of the excess iron from hemochromatosis.
- using medicines to rid the body of excess copper from the Wilson’s disease
- wearing protective clothing and also following product directions when you using toxic chemicals at work, at home, or into the garden
- Practicing safe sex to prevent hepatitis.
- Avoiding dirty needles.
- Don’t share another razor.
- Do not share hygienic product.
- You must take hepatitis vaccine to prevent viral hepatitis.
- Practice proper hygiene.