Coronary heart disease: causes, symptoms and treatment

Coronary heart disease is also known coronary artery disease that causes narrowing the blood vessel which supplies blood and oxygen to the heart. The coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease is major causes of illness and also death. Coronary heart disease in usually caused by the atherosclerosis, when the cholesterol substances are accumulated into the artery wall that causing them to narrow and resulting the less blood flow into the heart. Coronary heart disease mainly causes heart attack or myocardial infarction, angina, shortness of breath and chest pain. Those conditions are major symptoms of coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease.

What is coronary artery disease?

The coronary artery diseases are called so because they are encircle the heart like crown. Corona is Latin word that means crown. Coronary heart disease normally happens when the cholesterol and fat in your blood that builds up into artery walls and form a plaque. The plaques are responsible to prevent blood supply flow that needed for heart muscle. Sometime plaque may break down or rupture and a blood clot is form on the surface of the plaque. This condition may stop the area of the heart muscle receiving oxygen and the blood. This condition may lead to the heart attack. Human heart damage resulting abnormally heart beat that may causes cardiac arrest.

Why does the coronary heart disease happen?

The term coronary heart disease is describe than what happens when the blood supply of your heart is interrupted or blocked due to build up of cholesterol of fat substance in the artery walls. Coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease can happen for various causes including:

  1. Smoking.
  2. High cholesterol level.
  3. High blood pressure.
  4. Diabetes.

What are the risk factors of the coronary heart disease?

The major risk factors of the coronary artery disease are including:

Age

The risks of coronary heart disease are developing with the increase of the age. After age of 55 some kinds of the damage into the arteries is increase. It is one of the major risk factor of coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease.

Sex

Men are likely more risk to develop coronary heart disease than women. Especially women after menopause have a great chance to develop coronary artery disease. But younger women have also risk to develop heart disease.

Genetics

People whose parent had coronary heart disease, then the baby or next generation has also a great chance to develop coronary heart disease. It is little bit inheritable disease that can move from parent to child. It is another risk factor of coronary heart disease.

Obesity

Obese person have great chance to develop coronary heart disease. You have to avoid some food that may responsible to make a person obese. It is another risk factor of coronary artery disease.

High cholesterol levels

Low density lipoprotein LDL is bad for our body and it is called bad cholesterol. If LDL level increase in blood then it is highly risk for coronary heart disease. On other hand HDL is good cholesterol for our body.

High blood pressure

It is another major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Blood pressure is considered as high if the pressure stay or above 140/90 mmHg in maximum time. If you suffer from kidney disease or you have chronic liver disease or diabetes, then high blood pressure is consider as 130/80 mmHg or more higher.

Other risk factors or coronary artery disease

Other risk factors that may also participate for coronary artery disease including:

Stress

Mental stress is another risk factor of coronary heart disease. Research shows that emotionally upset and anger is most common trigger for heart attack and coronary artery disease.

Alcohol

Excessive alcohol consumption can damage the heart muscle and also responsible for coronary heart disease. Men should have no more than the two drinks containing alcohol per day. Alcohol is also responsible for high blood pressure.

Insulin resistance

This condition may occur if the body cannot use its own insulin appropriately. Insulin is one kinds of hormone that help to transport of blood sugar into the cells. This process is requiring for energy production. But insulin resistance mat lead diabetes.

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is one of the names of a group of risk factor that may increase the risk for developing coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease. Stroke and diabetes are also causes due to metabolic syndrome.

Cause of coronary heart disease

Some condition of factor that causes coronary heart disease including:

Smoking

Carbon monoxide that is present in tobacco smoke. It can damage the inner lining of the blood vessel and increase the risk of atherosclerosis disease. Nicotine is present in cigarette that may narrower the blood vessel. This condition is responsible for coronary heart disease. Female have greater risk to develop coronary artery disease due to smoking.

Diabetes

Insulin depended and insulin in-depended both types of diabetes are linked to a greater risk for developing coronary artery disease. Especially type II diabetes which is caused by obesity is mainly responsible for coronary heart disease.

Lack of physical exercise

Lack of physical exercise and physically inactive can worsen the other risk factor of coronary heart disease like high blood pressure, overweight or obesity, high cholesterol level, diabetes etc. people who active in their daily work have lower risk to develop coronary artery disease.

Unhealthy diet

Unhealthy also causes coronary heart disease. Unhealthy diet can also increase the chance for coronary artery disease. Foods that containing higher saturated fat and also Trans fats, salt, cholesterol may worsen the risk factor of coronary heart disease.

Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea is common disorders which have one or more pause in breathing or the shallow breaths when you sleep. The untreated sleep apnea may increase the risk of high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes and also heart attack.

Major sign and symptoms of coronary heart disease

If coronary arteries becoming narrow, then the oxygen rich blood supply into the heart become insufficient. Initially the reduce flow of blood may not produce any types of symptoms or signs. But when the plaque or fatty deposit into the coronary arteries, the following symptoms and signs are emerge:

Angina

It is a chest pain, tightness or discomfort that may occur when the area of the heart muscles are receiving insufficient blood oxygen supply. The angina is normally felt as:

  1. Squeezing, pressure, aching or burning across the chest, and heaviness.
  2. Sometime the pain may spread to shoulder, neck, back, jaw and throat.
  3. Patient often complain some symptoms like weakness, indigestion etc.
  4. Sweating.
  5. Breathlessness.
  6. Stable angina normally is unsurprising and it last short period of time and also may feel gas or indigestion.
  7. Unstable angina that may cause by blood cloth. It may worsen overtime.

Heart attack

When the heart muscle does not get enough oxygenate blood, the heart muscle die and heart attack occur. Myocardial infarction is another name of heart attack. It also called cardiac infraction. Heart attacks mainly occur when blood clots are developing into coronary arteries. If the cloth is big enough then it can stop the supply of blood into heart. During heat attack patient may experience:

  1. Chest pain.
  2. Chest discomfort.
  3. Coughing.
  4. Crushing chest pain.
  5. Feeling sick or vomiting.
  6. Dizziness.
  7. Shortness of breath.
  8. Face seems gray.
  9. Nausea.
  10. The person is sweaty.
  11. Restlessness.
  12. Squeezing in the center of the chest.

Shortness of breath

When the body organs or the heart is not getting enough oxygen, then the patient may start panting. Patient may also feel incredibly tired and exertion.

Diagnosis of coronary heart disease

The diagnosis tools of coronary heart disease including:

ECG or electrocardiogram

This device can record the electrical activity and also the rhythms of the patient heart. The electrodes are attached into the patient skin and then impulses are recorded as the wave and it displayed on screen. It is an important diagnosis tool for coronary artery disease.

Chest X-ray

By chest X-ray take the picture of the organ and also structure inside of the chest including your lung, your heart, and blood vessel. It is one of the major coronary heart disease diagnosis tools.

A holter monitor

In this technique the patients wear a portable device that will record all of your heartbeat. Normally it is worn under the clothing and then record information about electrical activities of the heart. It is so important diagnostic technique for coronary heart disease.

Echocardiogram

It is an ultrasound scan which checks the pumping condition of the patient heart. Echocardiogram test also help you to distinguish of systolic heart failure from the diastolic heart failure. In this technique the sound wave are usually use for create a video image of the heart that help to doctor to measure or the condition of heart pumping.

Ct scan

Ct scan help the doctor to visualize the arteries and detect the calcium within fatty deposit that may narrow the coronary arteries, and also some other heart abnormalities.

MRA

In this technique MRI imaging technology is used with an injected contrast dye for determine whether there is any blockage or the narrowing coronary artery.

Treatment of coronary heart disease

The treatment of the coronary heart disease including:

Lifestyle

You must avoid some lifestyle that may help you and keep far from coronary heart disease:

  1. Stop smoking.
  2. Exercise regularly.
  3. Eat healthy food.
  4. Eat balanced diet.
  5. Control your body weight.
  6. Reduce emotion.
  7. Reduce mental stress.

Medication

Medication for coronary heart disease are including:

Nitroglycerin

these is also within the sort of patches, sprays or tablets and management hurting by reducing the heart’s demand for blood and gap up (widening) the coronary arteries.

ACE inhibitors

They lower pressure and additionally facilitate bog down or stop the progression of arterial blood vessel sickness. If a patient has had a heart failure they will additionally facilitate cut back the chance of future ones. Patients UN agency take ACE inhibitors shouldn’t stop taking them while not initial checking with their doctor – there’s a significant risk of rapidly-worsening symptoms.

Calcium channel blockers

These medications widen the coronary arteries, leading to larger blood flow to the guts. They conjointly facilitate treat high blood pressure.

Low-dose anodyne and clot-busting medication

Blood clots within the coronary arteries will cause heart attacks. The doctor could impose a low-dose anodyne and/or a clot-busting medication. If the patient features a hurt disorder these medications could also be unsuitable. These medicine facilitate stop the blood from natural action therefore simply, reducing the chance of angina or attack.

Prevention of coronary heart disease

  1. You have to physically active.
  2. Avoid alcohol consumption.
  3. Do not smoke.
  4. Keep your blood pressure control.
  5. Keep your cholesterol level control.
  6. Control your diabetes.
  7. Maintain your body weight.
  8. Reduce mental stress.
  9. Take prescribe medicine.
  10. Flu vaccination may reduce the heart attack risk.

All Comments

  • Very detailed post with exact diagram. Helpful for medical student and biochemist.

    Nick Allen January 3, 2017 3:38 pm Reply

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