According to world health organization hepatitis A and hepatitis E are acute infections and they can transmit through water or food and contaminated by fecal matter. Raw food is primary source of the hepatitis A and hepatitis E virus. This virus can also transmitted by People who did not properly wash their hand during food handling.
Hepatitis B, C and D are normally transmitted via infected body fluid such as blood transfer, sharing needles, or invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment. Hepatitis b can spread by sexual contact.
What causes hepatitis?
Hepatitis causes due to case of viral hepatitis. Various types of hepatitis are present in human and they are contracted in different ways. The severity and duration of the effect are measure by isolation of virus that caused it.
Causes of hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is less dangerous than other hepatitis. It does not lead acute inflammation on liver. But about 20% of people become so ill due to hepatitis A and they should admit in hospital. Each year about 150 people in worlds become die due to Hepatitis A. people should take vaccine for save from hepatitis disease.
1. Normally spread by eating food or water which have hepatitis A virus.
2. It also spread through improper handling of food.
3. Eating raw shellfish taken from polluted water.
4. It spread via sex who carry hepatitis virus.
5. People who have oral and anal sex.
6. Intravenous drug users.
Causes of hepatitis B
More than 2 billion of people in worldwide have been infected by hepatitis B and 1.2 million people in the USA. United states are acute career of this virus. About 60 million of those people who acutely infected by this virus will die. Liver cancer and cirrhosis are most common disease due to hepatitis B.
1. Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus.
2. It can transmit by infected body fluid.
3. Hepatitis B is spread due to sex with infected person.
4. It is 100 timers easier to spread via sex then HIV.
5. It also causes due to sharing needle with infected person.
Causes of hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus. A common source of infection is the sharing of injection equipment among injection drug users. About 80% of this group in infected with Hepatitis C virus. In one exceptional case the disease was transmitted my means of a straw shared for inhaling cocaine. In more than one third of the cases transmitted causes by contaminated blood, sexual contract or other means that cannot be identified. Hepatitis C may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, about 20% to 30% of those infected develop cirrhosis within 20 years to 30 years.
Causes of hepatitis D
Hepatitis D is caused by the hepatitis D virus. Hepatitis D virus antigen is a single strand of RNA. It is not capable of causing an infection. It becomes infectious when an external envelope of HBag covers the hepatitis D virus protein core. Hepatitis D happens only in people infected with hepatitis B and tends to make that disease more severe. It can be spread from mother to child and through sex. Although less common, hepatitis D is especially dangerous, because it involves two viruses working at once.
Causative agent of hepatitis A
Hepatitis a virus is major causative agent of hepatitis A. hepatitis A virus can be grown in cell culture. It has no enveloped. Normally single strand RNA contain in hepatitis virus.
Hepatitis virus can enter into body by oral route. Hepatitis A virus can multiply into the intestinal tract. Then hepatitis a virus can spread into the liver, spleen and kidney. This virus can shed into the feces. Hepatitis A virus can also found in the blood and urine. Mollusks and contaminated water are also major source of infection.
Incubation time of hepatitis A virus
On average 4 weeks to 6 weeks is incubation range of hepatitis A virus.
The major symptoms of hepatitis A virus are given below:
1. Loss of appetite.
5. Abdominal discomfort major symptom of hepatitis A virus.
8. In some cases, jaundice is also occurring.
9. Dark urine.
10. Liver infection.
11. After liver infection liver become tender and enlarged.
Normally hepatitis A virus symptoms are more likely to appear in adult.
No specific treatment for hepatitis A. but people those are risk hepatitis A can be given immune globulin. Now vaccine is available for hepatitis A.
Hepatitis B virus is responsible for hepatitis B. hepatitis B virus is larger and it have enveloped. Hepatitis B virus genome is double strand DNA.
Way of transmission
1. Normally people who have daily contact with blood, they are higher risk of hepatitis B.
2. Medical technologist, nurse, dentist are considerably great risk of hepatitis B.
3. Hepatitis b virus can transmit to patient by surgeon and dentist.
4. Drug user has also a high incidence of hepatitis B because often share needle without sterilize properly.
5. Hepatitis b virus can transfer by sexual contract.
6. Hepatitis b virus also present in breast milk, it can transfer from mother to child by breast feeding.
7. Hepatitis b virus also present in body fluid.
8. Hepatitis b virus can be transmitted from mother to infant usually at birth, if mother was hepatitis B.
Symptoms of hepatitis b
1. Joint pain is major symptoms of hepatitis b.
2. Loss of appetite.
3. Low grade fever.
4. Later jaundice usually appears.
Hepatitis c is caused by the hepatitis c virus. Hepatitis c virus contains a single strand of RNA and is enveloped.
Route of transmission
A common source of infection is the sharing of injection equipment among injection drug user. About 80% of this group is infected with hepatitis c virus. In one exceptional case of hepatitis C the disease was transmitted by means of a straw mutual for inhaling cocaine. Major cases transmission causes by contaminated blood taken, sexual contact or other mans that cannot be identified of hepatitis c.
Similar to hepatitis b virus, but it is but more likely to become chronic. Beside these 20% of chronically infected patient develop liver cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Hepatitis C is diagnosed by detecting anti hepatitis c virus antibodies.
Some chronic cases of hepatitis c respond to treatment with alpha interferon, but relapses are frequent. One new commercial drug combines interferon with the antiviral ribaviirin. This treatment is expensive and only about 30% of case have a favorable sustained response.
Prevention of hepatitis C is limited to minimizing exposure even sharing of items such as razors, toothbrush, or nail clipper is dangerous.
Hepatitis D is caused by the hepatitis D virus. Normally Hepatitis D virus antigen is a single strand of RNA. It is not able of causing an infection, it become infectious when an external envelope of HBag covers the hepatitis D virus protein core.
Route of transmission
Injection of contaminated blood on other body fluids.
Co infection with hepatitis B virus result in higher incidence of severe liver damage and mortality rate is high.
Hepatitis D is diagnosed by defecting anti hepatitis D.
Hepatitis E is caused by hepatitis E virus. It is a no enveloped virus with a single strand of RNA.
Route of transmission
Hepatitis E virus Symptoms are Similar to hepatitis A virus. Normally Hepatitis E virus can not cause chronic liver disease, but for unexplained reason it is responsible for a mortality rate of 20 in pregnant women.
Hepatitis E is diagnosed by detecting anti hepatitis E.
Vaccine is under development.