Kidney transplant procedure is a surgical process; by this way a new healthy is replace on a diseased kidney. Doctor should follow several rules and requirement during Kidney transplant procedure. When a kidney cannot perform his work properly, then kidney transplantation must need to survive this person. A new kidney is replaced instead of defect kidney and the replace process is known as Kidney transplant procedure. Kidney transplant surgery is one of the most common transplant operations. A healthy or donor kidney is replaced on diseased kidney by kidney transplant surgery. Doctor must follow some rule before and after the kidney transplant surgery. If new kidney is from a living donor, then both of you and donor persons surgery done at the same time. When you old kidney become fully inactive, then kidney transplant surgery must required.
What is kidney transplant?
A kidney transplant is a surgical process performs to replace a healthy kidney from another person instead of disease kidney. The kidney come from a deceased organ donor or may from a living donor. Any individual or family member can donate one of their kidneys if it makes a good match. This type of transplant is known as living transplantation. Person who donates a kidney can lead healthy life with the remaining kidney.
Usually a person can receive only one kidney but in rare case he or she can receive two kidneys from a deceased donor. Most of the cases the deceased kidneys are left in place during transplantation procedure. Normally the transplant kidney is implanted into the lower abdomen on the front side.
How does the kidney work?
Usually the body can take nutrient from foods and then it converts them into energy. When the body has taken the food they need to waste product left behind into the bowel. Kidneys and the urinary system keep water and electrolytes balance such as sodium and potassium and also remove waste product from the body as a form or urea from the blood. Normally urea is produced when the food contain high level of protein such as poultry, meat or certain vegetable, that are broken down in the body. The urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys are also regulating acid base and fluid balance in our body.
Two kidneys are located under the rib cage toward the middle of back. The function of kidneys is:
- Remove liquid waste product from the blood in the form of urine.
- Keep a stable balance of salts and also other substances in the blood.
- Produce erythropoietin, a hormone that is aids the formation of red blood cells.
- Regulate blood pressure.
Reason of the Kidney transplant surgery procedure
Kidney transplantation may be recommended for the people with end stage of renal disease. A person whose permanent kidney failure occur, need to Kidney transplant procedure to alive this person. Some conditions of kidney that may result in end stage of renal disease include, but these are not limited to, the following:
- Repeated urinary infections.
- Kidney failure caused by the diabetes or high blood pressure.
- Polycystic kidney disease or the other inherited disorders.
- Inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units.
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare disorder that causes kidney failure.
- Lupus and other diseases of the immune system.
Risk of the Kidney transplant surgery procedure
As with any of surgical process, some complication can occur. Some risk of the Kidney transplant procedure includes:
- Blockage of the blood vessels into new kidney.
- Leakage of urine or the blockage of urine in the ureter.
- Initial lack of function of the new kidney.
The new kidney can be rejected. It is a normal reaction of the body when he fined a foreign object or tissue or organ. When a new kidney is transplant in a recipient body, then immune system of the body react to what it perceives as a threat and then attack the new organ, and it not realizing that the new kidney is beneficial. Medication must be taken to allow the transplanted organ to survive in body. Medication tricks the immune system to accepting the transplant and then not attacking the foreign object. So medication must need during Kidney transplant procedure. The side effect of medicine is depending on the specific medication that use during Kidney transplant procedure.
Contraindications for Kidney transplant procedure include:
- Current or recurring infection which cannot be treated effectively.
- Metastatic cancer is a cancer that has spread from its primary location to other additional locations in the body.
- Severe cardiac or other the medical conditions preventing to the ability to tolerate the surgical procedure.
- Serious conditions other than the kidney disease that would not be improve after transplantation.
- Noncompliance with treatment regimen.
Some test before kidney transplant surgery
You must need to have some tests to make sure then the donor kidney will match with your blood type and tissue types. This will help you to reduce the chance of kidney transplant rejection. You will also appraise to make sure that you do not have any significant lung disease or heart disease and also other disease such as cancer that might decrease your life span.
Kidney transplant surgery approximately takes about three hour. During the kidney transplant surgery the donor kidney will place into your lower abdomen. The blood vessels from donor kidney will be connected into arteries and also veins in your body. Then the ureter from donor kidney will be connected into your bladder. Then the blood will able to flow through the new kidney and then kidney will able to filter and remove the waste product from body and produce urine.
Some test before the procedure:
- Blood test and tissue typing will make sure that you body will not refuse the donated or new kidney. Mainly this test is done for decease the kidney transplant rejection rate.
- Skin test and blood test to check for any infection in your body.
- Some heart test such as echocardiogram, EKG or cardiac catheterization.
- Some test performs to check any cancer.
You can also observe one or more kidney transplant surgery center to determine which one will best for you.
- Ask the kidney transplant surgery center that how many kidney transplant they perform in every year and what is their survival rate.
- You can compare the kidney transplant surgery survival rate with other transplant center.
- You can ask about their support group.
- What types of housing and travel they offer.
If the kidney transplant surgery team believes that you are fit for the kidney transplant, then you will be put on a national waiting list.
- You have to place waiting list based on a number of the factor. The major factors include how severe your heart disease, condition of kidney is depend on that a transplant will be successful.
When you will qualify for kidney transplant surgery, then you have to follow these steps, these are including:
- Follow any diet that recommended you kidney transplant surgery
- Do not consume alcohol.
- Do not smoke.
- Keep your weight in range.
- Follow any recommended exercise program.
- Take all prescribed medicine.
- Follow up with your kidney transplant surgery team.
Before the Kidney transplant surgery procedure
Several tests are required before the kidney transplant procedures are including:
Psychological and social evaluation
Some Psychological and social issues also involved in kidney or organ transplant procedure like financial issue, stress and support from family or related other issue. These issues can significantly impact to the outcome of transplant. The similar types of evaluation are performed for a living donor before Kidney transplant procedure.
Blood test is very important before Kidney transplant procedure to help determine a better donor match. Blood also improve the chance that donor organ will not be rejected.
Some diagnostic tests are performed to assess your kidney as well as the overall health issue. The diagnostic tests are including ultrasound procedures, X-ray, kidney biopsy or the dental experiment. Normally women are receiving gynecology evaluation, Pap test, and mammogram. Those diagnostic tests are very important before the Kidney transplant procedure.
The kidney transplant team will consider all information by interview. The medical history, your physical examination, and some diagnostic tests are required to determine the eligibility for the Kidney transplant procedure. Once you have been received as a kidney transplant candidate, then you will be places on the UNOS list. After when a donor organ is available then you have to noticed the person and come to the hospital immediately.
If you able to receive a kidney from a living family, then the transplant are perform at the planned time. The donor person must have compatible blood type and also in a good health. Sometime a psychological test will be done to ensure the donor comfortable the decision.
The several following steps will proceed during transplant:
- Doctor will explain the kidney transplant procedure to you and then offer you the opportunity to ask any of questions.
- Then you will ask to sign consent from that you will give permit to do surgery.
- You have to read the form carefully and if any question then you has can ask to clear.
- Before the kidney transplant procedure if you have been routine dialysis then you will receive the dialysis prior to the process.
- You can receive a sedative prior to the kidney transplant procedure to help you relax.
- Based on the medical condition, doctor may request other specific preparation.
During the Kidney transplant procedure
Patient should admit in hospital during Kidney transplant procedure. Kidney transplant procedure may vary depending on condition and health. If you’re new kidney from living donor, then both the donor and your surgery will do at same time. The kidney transplant surgery team while removing the kidney from the donor at same time you will receive the donate kidney. If new kidney is from a person who had recent died then your surgery will start when it arrive at hospital.
The kidney transplant surgery may take three to four hour or more. Normally you will give local anesthesia. Surgeons make an incision into lower abdomen and then put the new kidney in right place. Then surgeon connect vain and artery of the healthy or new kidney to your own vain and artery. Then your blood will start to flow through the new kidney. After then the ureter from the new kidney will be connected into your bladder. Then the new kidney will start to make urine as soon as possible and also start to filtrate the blood.
Normally doctor may follow this Kidney transplant procedure:
- Firs you will ask for remove your clothing and serve a gown to were.
- Then an intravenous line will started in your hand or arm.
- Additional catheters may insert into your neck and then wrist to monitor the status of blood pressure and heartbeat.
- If there is excessive hair present at surgical site, then it may be clipped off.
- Then a catheter will inserted into bladder.
- Then you will be positioned into operating table and lying on your back.
- The kidney transplant surgery will performed when you will asleep under the general anesthesia.
- Then a tube will inserted through mouth into your lungs.
- This tube will attach to a ventilator that will be breathing during the kidney transplant procedure.
- Then The anesthesiologist will monitor your blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen and breathing during kidney transplant procedure.
- Then the skin over the surgical area will be cleansed by an antiseptic solution.
- Then the doctor will make incision in the lower abdomen in one side.
- Then donor kidney will replace into the abdomen.
- Then a left donor kidney will implanted into right side.
- The renal artery and the vein of the donor kidney will sewn to the extent iliac vain and artery.
- After the vein and the artery will attach, the blood flow through the vessel will check for the bleeding at the suture lines.
- Then the donor ureter will be connected to the bladder.
- This incision will be blocked by surgical stapler.
- Then a drain place into incision site to reduce swelling.
- Then sterile bandage or dressing will be applied.
After the Kidney transplant procedure
In the hospital
After the surgery you’ll be taken to the hospital room for observation. Once your force per unit area, pulse, and respiration area unit stable and you’re alert, you will be taken to the medical aid unit (ICU) or your room. Excretory organ transplantation sometimes needs AN in-hospital keep of many days.
A excretory organ from a living donor might begin to form body waste right away, however body waste production in a very clay excretory organ might take longer. Till body waste output is enough, qualitative analysis is also needed.
You will have tubing in your bladder to empty your body waste. The quantity of body waste is fastidiously measured to judge the new kidneys operate.
You will receive IV fluids till you’re able to soak up adequate food and fluids.
Your immunological disorder medications are closely monitored to form positive you’re receiving the optimum dose and also the best combination of medicines.
Blood samples are taken often to watch the standing of the new excretory organ, still as alternative body functions, like the liver, lungs, and blood system.
Your diet are step by step advanced from liquids to additional solid foods as tolerated. Your liquid intake is also restricted till the new excretory organ is absolutely useful.
You may begin physical activity by the day once the procedure. You must get out of bed and move around many times every day.
Take a pain reliever for soreness as counseled by your doctor. Anodyne or sure alternative pain medications might increase the prospect of hurt. Make sure to require solely counseled medications.
Nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, physical therapists, and alternative members of the transplant team can teach you the way to require care of yourself once you’re discharged from the hospital.
Once you’re home, it’s vital to stay the surgical space clean and dry. Your doctor can offer you specific bathing directions. The stitches or surgical staples are removed throughout a follow-up workplace visit.
You should not drive till your doctor tells you to. You must avoid any activity or position that causes pressure to be placed on the new excretory organ. Alternative activity restrictions might apply.