Liver function tests or lft-liver function blood tests

Liver function tests or lft are blood test that used to diagnose liver failure and also monitor liver damage or liver disease. The liver function tests measures the level of certain liver enzyme and protein in your blood. Some of the lft measure how better the liver is performing its normal duty or function of producing amino acid and clearing bilirubin. Other liver function tests or lft can measure enzyme that released by liver cells during liver disease or liver damage. Condition other than liver damage or liver disease can lead to abnormal lft or liver function test results. Test result also can be normal in people who have already liver damage or liver disease.

Liver function test or lft

An lft lab test is a liver function test which performed by analyzing blood sample. An liver function test is very much essential for detection the presence of various liver disorders. LFT blood test may also so much important to monitor the body response for specific course of treatment for various diseases like hepatitis or cirrhosis. However not all LFT tests measure for liver function. Lft blood test is requiring for measure the level of protein like albumin and globulin. To confirm blood disorder and gastrointestinal disease like gall stone, lft is require to identify.

What is lft?

LFT means liver function test. An lft is a blood test by which we can able to know about liver function. The LFT is also very much desired to see, if there have any active injure occur into the liver. LFT conclude the amount of specific chemical in the blood. We can able to measure the incidence of any chemical into blood by lft. So most accurate term of lft would actually be liver dysfunctions test.

What are liver function tests?

The liver function tests or lft are use to measure various chemical and enzyme in the blood that made by the liver. An abnormal liver function test result may indicate a problem associate with the liver and also help to identify the causes. Liver function tests also help to determine the health of liver by measuring the level of enzyme, protein and bilirubin in blood. Many test can be perform into liver, but most of the liver test do not measure the overall performance of the liver. But albumin test are widely use to check liver function and bilirubin test. Normally this test measure that how well the liver creates a protein, albumin and disposes of bilirubin.

What is a liver function test called?

Liver function tests, or LFTs, include tests that are routinely measured in all clinical laboratories. LFTs include bilirubin, a compound formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin; ammonia, a breakdown product of protein that is normally converted into urea by the liver before being excreted by the kidneys; proteins that are made by the liver including total protein, albumin, prothrombin, and fibrinogen; cholesterol and triglycerides, which are made and excreted via the liver; and the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Other liver function tests include serological tests (to demonstrate antibodies) and DNA tests for hepatitis and other viruses; and tests for antimitochondrial and smooth muscle antibodies, transthyretin (prealbumin), protein electrophoresis, bile acids, alpha-fetoprotein, and a constellation of other enzymes that help differentiate necrotic (characterized by death of tissues) versus obstructive liver disease.

What is a liver function test?

Liver function tests are blood tests used to help diagnose and monitor liver disease or damage. The tests measure the levels of certain enzymes and proteins in your blood.Some of these tests measure how well the liver is performing its normal functions of producing protein and clearing bilirubin, a blood waste product. Other liver function tests measure enzymes that liver cells release in response to damage or disease.Conditions other than liver disease or damage can lead to abnormal liver function test results. Test results can be normal in people who have liver disease or damage.

How to test liver function?

A series of special blood tests can often determine whether or not the liver is functioning properly. These tests can also distinguish between acute and chronic liver disorders and between hepatitis and cholestasis. If your liver isn’t working properly, it can affect your overall health. That’s because the liver plays lots of different roles the body, such as storing fuel from food, making proteins the body needs, and helping to remove toxins.

Your doctor may send you for liver function tests if you have signs of liver disease including jaundice dark urine, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain or swelling. Doctor may order liver function tests for identify or diagnosis about liver infection. It also require that how chronic this disease in meantime.

Why lft or liver function test done?

Liver function test are performed to determine any liver inflammation or liver disease. When liver become inflamed, some liver enzymes are found into blood and it is very useful test to find out any liver disease. Liver function test or lft can be use to:

  1. To screen for any liver infection, such as viral hepatitis.
  2. It also uses to monitor the progression of a specific liver disease, like alcoholic hepatitis and also determine how well a treatment is working.
  3. These tests also use to measure the severity f liver disease, particularly liver cirrhosis.
  4. Monitor possible side effect of any medication.
  5. To check how well your liver is working now.
  6. To check the primary or secondary cancer in liver.
  7. To find our exact causes of liver disease.

Problems with liver can make an individual very sick and also can lead to death. Doctor may suggest you for liver function test or lft if you are experiencing sign and symptoms of a liver disorder. The major symptoms of liver disorder including:

  1. Weakness.
  2. Fatigue.
  3. Weight loss.
  4. Loss of energy.
  5. Yellow skin and eye.
  6. Diarrhea.
  7. Abdominal pain.
  8. Vomiting.
  9. Nausea.
  10. Dark urine.
  11. Light stools.
  12. Swelling around the eyes and legs.

Some common liver function tests are given below:

LFT by measuring albumin

Albumin is one kind of protein that made by liver. By Serum albumin test we can measure the amount of this protein into the bloodstream.

Diagnostics purpose

Serum albumin test is very much important to determine liver disease or any kidney disease. By serum albumin test we can also determine if body in not absorbed enough protein. Generally albumin helps to move many small molecules through the bloodstream, including calcium, bilirubin, progesterone, and many other medications. It also plays an important role in keeping the body fluid from the bloodstream from leaking out into the tissues.

Normal result

The normal range of serum albumin is 3.4-5.5 grams per deciliter. It is a common result of serum albumin; result can be varying laboratories to laboratories.

In lft, serum albumin abnormal result means disorder of liver.

Decrease blood albumin level

Lower than normal level of serum albumin indicates the sign of:

  1. Kidney disease
  2. Hepatitis
  3. Cirrhosis
  4. Liver disease

Increased blood albumin level:

The elevated serum albumin levels mean the sign of:

  1. High protein diet.
  2. Dehydration.

LFT by measuring ALP

Alkaline phosphatase is a liver enzyme that found in all body tissues. Elevated level of Alkaline phosphatase is found into liver, bile duct and bone. Serum ALP level can be measure by blood test.

Diagnostic purpose

Serum ALP test is very much important for diagnose bone disease or liver disorder. This test also be require to see if treatment is working for those disease. It is one of the major parts of lft or liver function test.

Normal result

The normal range of serum ALP is 48 to 150 units per liter. Normal value can be somewhat varied from laboratory to laboratory. ALP can vary due to age and gender. In pregnant women and children, elevated level of ALP is normally seen.

Increase level of ALP

Excessive level of ALP, that means the sign of following disease:

  1. Bone disease
  2. Liver disease.
  3. Biliary obstruction.
  4. Rickets.
  5. Leukemia.
  6. Hyperparathyroidism.
  7. Hepatitis.
  8. Bone tumor.
  9. lymphoma.

Decrease level of ALP

Decrease level of ALP means the sign of following disease:

  1. Wilson’s disease.
  2. Protein deficiency.
  3. And malnutrition.

LFT by measuring ALT

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a liver enzyme that found in highest amount into the liver. When liver become injure, ALT is release into blood. We can measure serum ALT level by blood test. It is the most important part of liver function test or lft.

Diagnostic purpose

This test is very much useful to determine if anybody have a liver damage. It is specific test of liver damage.

Normal result

In generally the normal range of serum ALT is 10 to 41 units per liter.

This normal range is depending on few things, gender and age are main factor. This normal range can be little varies laboratory to laboratory.

Increase level of ALT

Increase level of serum ALT often means liver disease. An excessive level of ALT may be due to:

  1. Liver necrosis.
  2. Swollen of inflamed pancreas.
  3. Hepatitis.
  4. Lack of blood flow into the liver.
  5. Scarring of the liver.
  6. Liver cancer or tumor.
  7. Mononucleosis.

LFT by measuring AST

AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is liver enzyme that found in elevated amount in muscle, heart or liver cells. AST also found in other tissues in lower level. AST level is find out by blood test. In general it is the major part of liver function test or lft.

Diagnostic purpose

This test is normally done for liver disease. It also help to diagnosis liver inflammation.

Normal range

The Normal ranges of serum AST is 10 to 25 units per liter.

Increase AST level

Increase level of AST is usually signs of liver muddle. Elevated levels of AST may be due to:

  1. Pancreatitis.
  2. Heart attack.
  3. Liver disease.
  4. Cirrhosis.
  5. Inflammation of liver.
  6. Viral hepatitis.
  7. Liver cancer.
  8. Muscle disease.
  9. Death of liver tissues.

What is a liver function test by Globulin:

This describes the specific level of globulins — which include antibodies. This measure can be raised when liver cells are damaged due to autoimmune liver damage or to long-standing liver disease of many types, particularly when cirrhosis exists.

What is a liver function test by LD:

Clinical interpretation:

Diagnostic purpose:

  1. Myocardial infraction
  2. Liver disease

Reference value: The normal range of serum LD activity varies from 125 to 290 U/L.

Causes: The serum LD activity is increased in a wide variety of disorders, because it is so widely distributes in tissues. The principal clinical uses of the LD tests are the follow:

Liver disease: LD is an enzyme found in the liver. Elevated levels may indicate liver damage.

Some other test for liver:

Some other test also be done for identify liver disease. Other blood test also done to diagnosis liver damage:

Blood clothing test

For blood cloth the liver makes many of protein. Liver can not make enough protein due to certain liver disorder. Therefore, blood clotting tests may be used as a marker of the severity of certain liver disorders. See separate leaflet called Blood Clotting Tests.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT or ‘gamma GT’):

This is another enzyme that occurs in liver cells. A high level of this enzyme is particularly associated with heavy alcohol drinking. (The liver breaks down and clears alcohol from the body and this enzyme is involved in the process.)

How to done liver function tests?

Some common tests that are usually used to see how well your liver is performing is called liver function tests. Tests include:

Liver function tests: Albumin

Albumin is a protein that normally made by liver. Normally a serum albumin test determines the amount of this liver protein in the blood serum.

How the test are performed

Normally a blood serum is required to perform this test. This blood sample may be taken through vein and the procedure is called venipuncture.

How to prepare for this test

Few drugs can increase the albumin level in blood. Health care provider will inform you if you have to stop to taking any medicine or drug that can affect this liver function tests.

Why the test is performed

This test is performed to detect the exact causes of liver disease or if the body can not able to absorbing sufficient protein. This test also helps to determine if you have any kidney pain or liver disease.

Albumin is a protein that helps to move many little molecule through the blood such as calcium, bilirubin, progesterone and some medications also. It also plays a vital role to keeping the fluid from the blood.

Normal result

The serum albumin normal range is 3.4 – 5.4 (g/DL) grams per deciliter. Normal range can vary slightly among different clinical laboratories.

What the abnormal result mean

Lower than normal serum albumin can be a sign of:

  1. Kidney disease.
  2. Hepatitis.
  3. Liver cirrhosis.

Decreased serum albumin levels may happen when body does not absorb or get enough nutrients such as:

  1. Low protein diet.
  2. Sprue.
  3. Whipple’s disease.

Increased serum albumin level may be due to:

  1. High protein diet.
  2. dehydration.


There is little risk involved during your blood take. Arteries and veins vary in size from one person to another and also from one side of your body to another side. The risks that are associated during blood drawn are so little but may include:

  1. Bleeding from where needle was inserted.
  2. Feeling light headed.
  3. Hematoma.
  4. Infection bur its chance is so rare.

Liver function tests: Alpha-1 antitrypsin

Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a clinical test to measure or determine the amount of alpha-1 antitrypsin in your blood serum.

How this test is performed

Normally a blood sample is required to perform this test. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is determined for blood serum.

How the test will feel

At first a needle is inserted into vain for blood draw and at this time you may feel moderate pain. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

Why the test is performed

This test is very helpful to identifying a rare form of liver disease or liver cirrhosis in adult and children and rare form of emphysema in adult person that caused by an Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Alpha-1 antitrypsin insufficiency is passed down through families and the condition causes the liver to create too little of a protein which protect the liver and lung from damage.

Normal results

Normal range can vary slightly among different diagnostic center.

What the abnormal result mean

Lesser that normal serum Alpha-1 antitrypsin levels may be associated with:

  1. Liver cirrhosis.
  2. Live tumor.
  3. Emphysema.
  4. Obstructive jaundice.
  5. Portal hypertension.


There is very small risk associated with having blood taken. This risk is very simple and you can drawn you blood without any tension.

Some other risks may associate with during blood drawn is very little but may include:

  1. Excessive bleeding.
  2. Fainting.
  3. Hematoma or accumulation of blood under your skin.
  4. Infection.

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