Renal cell carcinoma causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment

Renal cell carcinoma is a kidney cancer that normally originate in the inside layer of the proximal convoluted tubule. Proximal convoluted tubule is very small tube into the kidney that normally filer the blood and also remove waste product from the body. Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common types of kidney cancer in adult. Renal cell carcinoma is known to be the most lethal tumor of all the genitourinary tumors. If the tumor is limited into renal parenchyma, then five year survival rate in sixty to seventy percent. But the survival rates become lower when metastases have spread.

Cause of renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is most common category of kidney cancer in adult and most time it occurs between the ages fifty to seventy. The exact causes of renal cell carcinoma are unknown but the following factor may increase the risk of kidney cancer:

  1. Smoking.
  2. Certain pain medication.
  3. Dialysis treatment.
  4. Family history of this disease.
  5. High blood pressure.
  6. Horseshoe kidney.
  7. Polycystic kidney disease.
  8. Von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Symptoms of renal cell carcinoma

The major sign and symptoms of renal cell carcinoma including:

  1. Abdominal pain and swelling.
  2. Back pain.
  3. Blood in the urine.
  4. Swelling of the veins around a testicle.
  5. Flank pain.
  6. Weight loss.
  7. Pale skin.
  8. Excessive hair growth in women.
  9. Vision problems.
  10. Lump in abdomen.
  11. Pain in side that does no goes away.
  12. Loss of appetites.
  13. Weight loss.
  14. Anemia.
  15. Fever.
  16. hypertension.
  17. Hypercalcemia.
  18. Night sweats.
  19. malaise.

Diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma could be diagnosed by following ways:

Physical exam and history

It is one of the major ways to diagnose renal cell carcinoma. Normally an exam of the whole body to check any general sign of health, such as checking for sign of a disease, including lumps and anything else that are seems unusual. History of past illness and parent health habit are depending on treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

Ultrasound exam

A high energy sound wave that called ultrasound is a medical tool to diagnosis renal cell carcinoma. This medical technique now a day is very popular to diagnosis renal cell carcinoma. The location and the condition or tumor can be identified by using this technique.

Blood chemistry studies

It is a clinical procedure in which a blood sample is checked to determine the amount of the specific substance released in the blood by the organ and the tissue in the body. Higher or the lower than the normal amount of a substance would be sign of a disease.

Urinalysis

It is a urine test to check the color of urine and also its content such as protein, red blood cell, sugar, white blood cell etc. renal cell carcinoma can be diagnose by this way.

Liver function test

It is a procedure in which a sample of blood is check to measure the amount of the enzyme that release into it by liver. The elevated level of liver enzyme can be a sigh that the cancer is already spread into the liver. There are also some certain enzyme that may also increase the liver enzyme.

Intravenous pyelogram

It is another major diagnostic tool to diagnose renal cell carcinoma. A series of X-ray of the ureter, kidney and bladder to detected if the cancer is present in these organs. Normally a contrast dye is injected into a vein. Then the contrast dye moves into the ureter, kidney and the bladder. Then X-ray is taken to find out any blockage.

CT scan

In this procedure a series of details picture of inside of the body are taken from the different angel. This CT scan procedure, the picture is made of by a computer linked into an X-ray machine. Normally a die is injected into vein that may help to the tissue or organ to show up more clearly. This technique is also called the computerized tomography or the computed tomography.

MRI

In this technique a magnet, radio wave and computer is use to make a series of details picture of organ inside of the body. This technique is also called the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. It is one of the major diagnostic techniques to identify the renal cell carcinoma.

Biopsy

In this technique a cell or tissue is removed or taken off from the infected area, then it view under the microscope to check the any sigh of cancer. A thin needle is use to taken off a tissue from the tumor.

Treatment of renal cell carcinoma

If the tumor stayed only into the kidney, then the renal cell carcinoma can be cured by surgery. But if the tumor is spread outside of the kidney such as lymph nodes or main vain of the kidney, then the chemotherapy must needed to cure. Renal cell carcinoma is resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in most of the cases, but it does respond well to immunotherapy with interferon-alpha or interleukin-2. But in the early stage of the cancer, cryotherapy and surgery are mainly preferred to treatment.

Surgery

In early stage of the kidney surgical removal is recommended as the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. When the tumor does not spread outside of the body, then the surgical treatment is best way to cure.

Chemotherapy

When the tumor is spread to the outside of the kidney, then doctor recommended to using therapeutics agent as the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Chemotherapy normally apply on the last stage of tumor.

The renal cell carcinoma survival rate

The five year survival rate of renal cell carcinoma is more than ninety to ninety five percent if the tumor is less than four centimeter. But for the larger tumor the renal cell carcinoma survival rate still good like eighty to eighty five percent. When the tumors are spreads outside of the kidney through the renal capsule and then out of the local facial investments, then the survival rate in decrease to near the sixty percent.

If the tumor is converted into metastasized and spread into the lymph node, then the five year survival rate of the renal cell carcinoma is around ten to fifteen percent. But if it spread metastatically to the other organ of the body, then the survival rate is too poor and less than five percent.

Medications of renal cell carcinoma

RCC elicits Associate in nursing immune reaction, which often results in dramatic spontaneous remissions. This has inspired a method of victimization immunomodulating therapies, such as cancer vaccines and the interleukin-2 (IL-2), to breed this response.

IL-2 has created “durable remissions” in an exceedingly tiny variety of patients, however with substantial toxicity.

Another strategy is to revive the perform of the VHL factor, that is to destroy proteins that promote inappropriate organic process.

Bevacizumab, Associate in nursing protein to VEGF, has considerably prolonged time to progression, however part three trials haven’t been revealed. Sunitinib (Sutent), sorafenib (Nexavar), and temsirolimus, that square measure small-molecule inhibitors of proteins, are approved by the U.S. F.D.A.

Sorafenib, a supermolecule enzyme matter, was government agency approved in Gregorian calendar month 2005 for treatment of advanced nephritic cell cancer.

A month later, Sunitinib was approved additionally. Sunitinib—an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted (RTK) inhibitor—and sorafenib each interfere with neoplasm growth by inhibiting maturation additionally as neoplasm cell proliferation.

Sunitinib seems to supply larger efficiency against advanced RCC, maybe as a result of it inhibits additional receptors than sorafenib.

However, these agents haven’t been directly compared against each other in an exceedingly single trial. The primary phase III clinical trial study examination Associate in Nursing RTKI with protein medical care was revealed within the ”New European country Journal of Medicine”.

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