Function of kidneys-kidney function test

Kidney function means the some bodily function that normally performed by the kidneys. The main function of kidney is to eliminate nitrogenous wastes from our body. It is not only the kidney function but also the key function of kidney. Another critical role of kidney is to regulating certain fluid, keeping the blood clean and also some biochemical process in our body. Everyday both kidney normally process about 190 liter of blood and filtrate out about two quart of waste product from body. Eliminating waste product from the body is another crucial function of kidney. The urinary system, of which the kidneys are main organs, is normally responsible to eliminate waste product from body.

Function of kidneys

The function of kidney is very much wide. The main function of kidney is to excrete urea, mineral salt, and toxic element and other waste product from the bloodstream. On other hand kidney also conserve water, salt, and electrolytes balance in body. At least one kidney must properly for life survival.

Kidney filters the bloodstream and excretes all waste products from blood and keeps our blood clean and toxic free. Kidney also regulated body fluid. Kidney plays a vital function for keep our blood clean and chemical balance maintains in our body. In this way kidney excrete toxic product and extra water from blood.

The kidneys play many important roles in our body. Those are:

  1. Filtering out waste product via urine.
  2. Regulation of blood pressure.
  3. Regulation of acid-base balance in our body.
  4. Regulation of electrolyte balance.
  5. Stimulation of red blood cell.

What is the function of the kidney in our body?

Normally two kidneys are present in our body and its lie in the back of the abdominal cavity. They are about four to five inches long and they plays a great role in our body and essential for alive. The blood supply to the kidneys comes from the renal arteries, which branch off the aorta. The kidneys have a very considerable blood supply in our body. Per minutes about 1300 milliliter of blood pass through across kidney per minute.

About one million of nephron is present in each kidney, which work is so specific. They work for filter the blood and removing waste product from the blood and produce urine. Approximately 2 million of nephron is present in two kidneys. A person can survive his life by one kidney.

After filtration of the blood kidney produce urine. The urine then collected into ureters, which are long muscular tubes which act as conduits, taking the urine produced by the kidneys to the bladder. Urine is stored in the bladder, an expandable muscular organ, until it is full, until the need to urinate is signaled to the brain through the nervous system, and the bladder sphincter opens (as a voluntary action) to allow the urine to flow out through another tube called the urethra.

Most important functions of the kidneys

Kidneys are vital organ in our bodies and its function also very much important for survive. The most important functions of the kidneys are given below:

Regulation of water balance

Regulation of water balance is one of the important functions of the kidneys in our bodies. Kidneys plays major rule to produce urine. When fluid level becomes decrease in body, re-absorption level become high and maintains water balance in body. When a person intake excess amount of water, formation of urine level become high. In practical term if an individual does not drink much water on a certain day, the posterior lobe of pituitary release ADH, more water is reabsorbed; blood volume is maintained at a normal level. On the other hand if an individual drink a large amount of water and does not release ADH, more water is excreted, blood volume is maintained at a normal level and a greater amount of urine is formed. It is one of the major functions of the kidneys.

Regulation of electrolyte balance

Regulation of electrolyte balance is one of the important functions of the kidneys in our bodies. Kidney regulates sodium, potassium, calcium balance in body. This electrolytes balance is regulated by ADH hormone.

What is the major function of the kidney

The major kidney function is including:

Urine formation

Urine formation is one of the vital kidney functions. Once the blood plasma goes through kidneys, then the waste products are filtrate out and these waste products must be removed from the body. These wastes are toxic and allowed then to accumulate, will causes kidney pain, sickness and eventually death. A crucial function of kidney is to get rid of those waste products from the body that is done via the urine

The two kidneys produce and eliminate urine by a complex process. During the filtering process, usually the kidneys determine the exact volume of water and also the exact volume of some chemicals like potassium, sodium and phosphorous that should remain into blood. Excess chemicals, water and nitrogenous waste are formed by the help of kidneys, which is known as urine.

Regulating pH balance

It is another vital kidney function. The kidneys also can regulate the pH balance of body’s by adjusting the acid base balance. When the blood is too much acidic, it meaning that there is excess of hydrogen ions and the kidney move these ions into the urine.

Bacteria flourish in an acidic environment. Normally the kidneys help to maintain blood plasma at a neutral pH level 7.4. By regulation the body’s pH level, the kidneys help to control or maintain an environment that prevent disease and also promote the efficient function within the body.

Filtering the blood

Filtering blood is one of the major functions of kidneys. Kidneys remove waste product and excess water after filtering the blood. Everyday about 200 liter of blood enter the kidney via renal arteries. About one million of glomeruli are present inside of kidney; and glomeruli filter the blood and separate waste and waste from blood.

Most of unwanted substances are come from our food and water that we intake. The kidneys automatically remove the right amount of salt and other minerals from the blood to leave just the quantities the body needs. In form of urine kidney excrete excess waste product and fluid. Urine is stored in the bladder until it is full and then leaves the body via the urethra. Most people pass about 2 liters (4 pints) of urine every day.

Balancing fluid levels

By removing excess amount of fluids kidneys balance the fluid level in our body. In women fluid contents stays at about 55% of their total body weight. And in man it is at about 60% of their total body weight. The kidneys maintain these proportions by balancing the amount of fluid that leaves the body against the amount entering the body.

Fluid comes into our bodies from what we drink, and from high-liquid foods such as soup. If we drink a lot, healthy kidneys remove the excess fluid and we pass a lot of urine. If we don’t drink much, the kidneys retain fluid and we don’t pass much urine. Fluid also leaves the body through sweat, breath, and feces. If the weather is hot and we lose a lot of fluid by sweating, then the kidneys will not pass so much urine.

Helping to make red blood cells

Helping to produce red blood cell is another major kidney function. Healthy kidneys normally produce a hormone that called erythropoietin. This protein is carried in the blood into the bone marrow and there it stimulates the production of RBC or red blood cells. These cells can carry oxygen throughout the body.

Helping to control blood pressure

Regulation of blood pressure is another major kidney function. This is normally done by the hormonal reaction and regulating the amount of water in our body. Renin is an enzyme that secreted by the kidney and helps to regulate electrolyte balance and also control blood pressure in our body. When the blood pressure begins to fall, then the kidneys release the enzyme rennin. Normally this enzyme converts the blood protein into hormone called angiotensin.

Angiotensin then induces adrenal gland to release a further hormone called aldosterone. This hormone normally causes sodium and water to be reabsorbed into blood and thereby increased blood pressure and blood volume.

Hormone regulation

Healthy kidneys normally make hormones including renin and angiotensin. These hormones regulate how much sodium and fluid the body keeps, and also how well the blood vessels can expand and contract. This, in turn, helps control blood pressure.

They do this by regulating:

  1. The amount of water in the body. If there is too much water in the body blood pressure will go up. If there is too little water into the body then the blood pressure will drop.
  2. The width of the arteries. The arteries are constantly change in width as blood flows through them. The narrower the arteries, the higher the blood pressure. Renin helps control narrowing of the arteries. Failing kidneys often make too much renin. This raises blood pressure. If your blood pressure is high, your heart is working harder than normal to pump blood through your body.

Other kidney function

Other kidney function is including:

  1. Regulation of other substances vital to the body economy such as glucose, amino acid, fatty acid etc.
  2. Excretion of metabolic waste product, toxic substance and drug is other vital functions of the kidneys.
  3. Maintain osmotic pressure of blood and tissue is another functions of the kidneys.
  4. The kidney secretes the enzyme rennin which helps to maintain blood pressure and also blood volume.
  5. The kidney secretes the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates RBC production and they help to active the vitamin D precursor from the skin.

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